Household food insecurity is a risk factor for iron-deficiency anemia in a multi-ethnic, low-income sample of infants and toddlers

This article examines the relationships of household food security status with Fe deficiency (ID) and Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) among children less than 3 years of age, and associated factors that contribute to ID and IDA.  In a sample of 2,853 low income children aged <36 months, those from households with very low food security (VLFS) were almost twice as likely to have IDA then were children from households with high or marginal food security.  Breastfeeding may be associated with elevated prevalences of ID and IDA, while participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) may be protective for ID.